Neuromodulation technologies introduce external energy – electrical, magnetic, ultrasound, photic - to the brain, invasively or noninvasively, for therapeutic purposes in neuropsychiatric conditions or basic/cognitive neuroscience. The ENIGMA Neuromodulation Working Group (ENIGMA-Neuromod) aims to aggregate multi-modality neuromodulation data to empirically further the clinical utility and precision of neuromodulation as well as to further scientific frameworks of functional neuroanatomy. This database will be available to investigator members worldwide.

Working Group Goals:

  • Compare and contrast between different neuromodulation techniques with regards to neural systems, cognitive, emotional and behavioral effects.
    • Determine how variability in targeting and modulation parameters effect clinical outcome.
  • Assess within and between modality metrics (e.g. stimulation parameters, target) as they relate to treatment outcomes across neurologic and psychiatric diseases.
    • Meta-analytic confirmation and acceleration of clinical utility studies.
    • Use of computational models and ML/AI algorithms to predict optimal parameters for achieving optimal clinical outcomes.
  • Compile a large-scale data set of longitudinal MRI data where neuromodulation is used as a model of neural perturbation from which we can develop deeper insights into functional neuroanatomy.
    • Long-term vision of developing 3D/VR neural cartographies (e.g. cartography of emotions).
  • Incorporate modeling methods for optimization and personalization of targeting and dosing estimations.

The working group is chaired by Dr. Taylor Kuhn, Dr. Ausaf Bari, Dr. Adam Woods, Dr. Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Dr. Aprinda Indahlastari and Dr. Eric Porges.

Dr. Taylor Kuhn

Assistant Research
Neuroscientist, UCLA
Department of Psychiatry

Dr. Ausaf Bari

Assistant Professor,
UCLA Department of

Dr. Adam Woods

UF Department of Clinical
and Health Psychology

Dr. Fidel Vila-Rodriguez

Associate Professor,
UBC Department of

Dr. Aprinda Indahlastari

Assistant Professor,
UF Department of Clinical
and Health Psychology

Dr. Eric Porges

Associate Professor,
UF Department of Clinical
and Health Psychology

This working group has five subgroups dedicated to distinct neuromodulation modalities, including:

  • Deep Brain Stimulation, led by Dr. Ausaf Bari (UCLA, USA)
  • Transcranial Alternating Current and Direct Current Stimulation, led by Dr. Adam Woods (University of Florida, USA)
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, led by Dr. Fidel Vila-Rodriguez (University of British Columbia, Canada)
  • Transcranial Focused Ultrasound, led by Dr. Taylor Kuhn (UCLA, USA)
  • Vagal Nerve Stimulation, led by Dr. Eric Porges (University of Florida, USA)

Additionally, a sixth subgroup applying computational models including machine learning and artificial intelligence methods to all neuromodulation modalities was recently added, led by Dr. Aprinda Indahlastari (University of Florida, USA).


The ENIGMA-Neuromodulation Working Group is a collaborative initiative designed to generate reliable and replicable findings to questions that cannot be addressed by individual research groups. Groups with MRI data including localization of the neuromodulation target are encouraged to join. Behavioral, psychophysiological, and genetics data are welcomed but not required.

If you would like to join the ENIGMA-Neuromodulation Working Group, please contact Dr. Taylor Kuhn (


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