Neurofeedback training allows individuals to learn self-regulating their own brain signals. The technique has been increasingly studied in healthy participants and clinical populations [1,2]. Yet, the underlying mechanisms, and predictors of learning and treatment response remain to be understood. ENIGMA-Neurofeedback is one of the first intervention-focused ENIGMA Working Groups. We aim to aggregate data from participating sites and provide opportunities for big data collaborations in the neurofeedback field. First mega-analyses have investigated predictors of fMRI neurofeedback training success [3,4] by pooling data across multiple sites. ENIGMA-Neurofeedback will allow extending this work and applying it to other pertinent research questions in the field that cannot be sufficiently addressed by individual groups. This database will be available to investigator members worldwide.

Working Group goals:
Neurofeedback training experiments are complex psychobiological interventions that generate rich data with many parameter settings, mostly whole brain neural recordings, and a set of behavioral outcomes in accordance with the neural system or clinical condition that is targeted. The Working Group aims to aggregate this data from participating sites to explore some of the key research questions in the field:

  • Compile a large-scale database of brain imaging and psychometric/clinical data acquired in neurofeedback training studies.
    • Aggregate meta-data of used paradigms and training parameter specifications
  • Investigate neural correlates of self-regulation training within and across different neurofeedback training paradigms.
    • Apply computational modeling techniques to identify predictors of learning success and test candidates for underlying neural mechanisms.
    • Investigate and compare therapeutic effects within and across different clinical disorders.
    • Explore parameter spaces to optimize training paradigms.
    • Enhance prospectively the comparability between paradigms initiating efforts for standardization (e.g., with regards to outcome measures).

In the beginning, we will focus on working with real-time fMRI neurofeedback training.
The Working Group is chaired by Dr. David Mehler, Dr. Amelie Haugg and Dr. David Linden.

Dr. David Mehler
RWTH Aachen University
Dr. Amelie Haugg
University of Zurich
Dr. David Linden
Maastricht University

We work in collaboration with the ENIGMA-Neuromodulation (NeMo) Working Group. The neurofeedback community meets biannually at the real-time functional neuroimaging and neurofeedback conference (rtFIN). You can also subscribe to the community mailing list.


The ENIGMA-Neurofeedback Working Group is a collaborative initiative designed to generate reliable and replicable findings to questions that cannot be addressed by individual research groups. Groups with data from fMRI neurofeedback experiments are encouraged to join.

If you are interested, please e-mail Dr. David Mehler at:

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